Normandy Battle of

by: John Bonavita, TJ Luddy, Andrew Obenrader, & Kyle Schwab

Overview
-

The Invasion of Normandy, during Operation Overload, also known as D-Day, took place on June 6, 1944. Twelve Allied nations were involved which were Australia, Canada, Belgium, France, Czechoslovakia, Greece, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Months before the battle even began, 300+ planes dropped more than 13,000 bombs over Normandy. Troops were training for the invasion to get everything perfect. Also, 6 p
arachute regiments with around 13,00 men went ahead to cut railroad lines, blow up bridges, and seize land fields. Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander, had many hazardous tasks to be performed in order for the invasion to work. He had to get his men across the heavily fortified English Channel. They crossed the English Channel with 5,000 ships and in addition 11,000 aircraft. By the time night fell, 9,000 troops were dead, but 100,000 troops made it on the beach. Over the next weeks, the Allies were stuffing France with troops. At the end of June 11th, 326,547 troops, 54,186 vehicles and 104,428 tons of supplies were landed in France on the beaches. On June 30th, over 850,000 men, 148,000 vehicles, and 570,000 tons of supplies were now stationed. And on July 4th a million men had been landed. The invasion led to the loss of the German position in most of France and the secure establishment of a new major front. Also, the landings helped the Soviet Union on the Eastern front who was facing the bulk of the army.
Normandy Battle of - Roman US History 11
Tactics:

The Allies were very successful in the Battle of Normandy. This was because of their tactics in battle, which were two-fold. First, the Allies used heavy deception against the German Army. The Allies had broken the German code and knew of any preparations they could make against them. The Allies then proceeded to mislead the German Army as to where the attack would take place. This was very successful as troops were diverted to these fake locations. During the actual attack, the Allies used tactics of attacking five different beachheads with overwhelming force. This was successful in pushing the German Army, who fought valiantly but were badly outnumbered, back from the beaches. This allowed temporary ports to be established, bringing more supplies and troops into France.
Normandy Battle of - Roman US History 11
Technology

Since the Allies were suffering early in the war, they decided to make new technology for Operation Overlord. Operation Overlord was mostly a naval battle, so most of the new technologies had to do with the sea. The first new technology was called a mulberry. A mulberry was a prefabricated concrete harbor which was entirely mobile which was perfect for all the ships used at Normandy. The Allies used two mulberries at Normandy, one of which was used at Omaha Beach by the US. Another problem the Allies had in WWII was they struggled to get fuel for their ships to all the places they were stationed. Due to this problem, the Allies came up with a technology called PLUTO to help solve this problem. PLUTO, which stands for Pipe-Line Under The Ocean, was a line which ran under the English channel to ensure the fuel could be sent in a more safe manner. There were some other technologies that were made for Normandy but were never used. One example of this is combining sea-ice with sawdust in order to provide landing strips on the water for aircraft.
Normandy Battle of - Roman US History 11

Important People:

Dwight D. Eisenhower (U.S.)- Supreme Allied Commander, master-mind behind the Invasion of Normandy.
Arthur Tedder(U.K.)- Deputy Supreme Allied Commander
Bernard Montgomery(U.K.)- Ground Forces Commander in Chief
Omar Bradley(U.S.)- U.S. 1st Army
Trafford Leigh-Mallory(U.K.)- Air Commander in Chief
D. Eisenhower
American participation-

•US commanders-
•Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander)
•Omar Bradley (US first army)

•US casualties-
•D-Day-1465 dead, 5138 wounded, missing, or captured
•Normandy Campaign- 20,838 killed, 94,881 wounded and 10,128 missing for a total of 125,847 casualties

•US troops
•US V Corps, US 1st Infantry division, and US 29th Infantry Division
•US VII Corps, US 4th Infantry Division
•US 101th Airborne Division
•US 82nd Airborne Division

•By June 19, the US put ashore 314,504 men, 41,000 vehicles, and 116,000 tons of supplies.

•New Technology
•The US established a Mulberry harbour at Omaha Beach.
•Mulberry Harbour- a type of temporary harbour developed in World War II to offload cargo on the beaches during the Allied Invasion of Normandy.

•Actual US fighting
the Americans made little headway in the Cotentin Peninsula
•Americans managed to capture Saint-Lô with only the greatest difficulty on July 18th.
Americans smashed through the enemy defenses and sweep southwards into Brittany and towards the Loire.
The Americans who landed on Omaha beach faced the veteran German 352nd Infantry Division, one of the best trained on the beaches.

Outcome-

The Battle of Normandy was a very pivotal event of WWII. For years the Soviet Union had demanded that the Allies establish a new front in Europe, one that would alleviate the Soviet Union of the continuous pressure from the German Army on the eastern front. The Allies finally came up with a plan to establish such a front. Operation Overlord as it was called, was set to establish a foothold in France and then proceed through France an onto Germany. The military action was code-named Operation Neptune and occurred on D-Day, June 6th, 1944. The Allied forces would eventually take back France and proceed towards Berlin. The outcome of the initial assault was that the Allies were able to control the beachheads of France. This allowed them to ship critical supplies and men across the English Channel. The overall outcome of the Battle of Normandy was three pronged. One, the Allies were able to push German forces out of France, gaining land and momentum. Second, the Battle of Normandy established a new european front in the war, pushing Germany away from an invasion of Britain. Third, Normandy had the effect of taking German troops away from the eastern front, allowing the Soviet Union to push the German Army back towards Germany. This, in effect, closed the German Arm off, as it was encircled by both the Allies and the Soviet Union. The Battle of Normandy allowed the Soviet Union and the Allied Powers to take back control of WWII and swing the momentum of war in their favor, ending any shot Germany had of effectively winning the war.

http://www.blinkx.com/video/europe-under-siege-the-battle-of-normandy/F8PdA9gdsZqbx3nFzcGhWQ

http://www.wtj.com/articles/normandy/index_map_sealand.htm

More pages